It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare.
In a chilling omen of what was to come, the German advocates painted the conflict as a war between the Teutons or "White Race" against Slavic or "Asiatic" barbarism.
Russians were condemned as "Kossacks" [sic],"half-cultured Tartars," and "Asiatics," while the British and French were excoriated for using "colored savage troops" and encouraging Japanese intervention and conquest of German territories "without troubling about the consequences to the universal progress of the white race.
For their part, the British simplified the messiness of the conflict by blaming Germany for the crimes of its allies as well as itself. Toynbee, the eminent historian, placed the ultimate responsibility for the genocide of the Armenians on German shoulders for not stopping the Turks.
Lewis Namier, another noted historian, went so far as to blame the least savory aspects of Russia, such as the pogroms, on the Germans resident in Russia. However, pro-British propagandists generally made a distinction repudiated by pro-German propagandists between German militarism, which Britain was fighting, and ordinary Germans, or German culture, which it was not.
All of these ideas were expressed in many media. In the end, the British were more successful, as evidenced by our entry into the war on their side.
However, it was not an even fight. The British benefited from several advantages over the Germans: German Propaganda Machinery The Germans were first off the mark with the creation of propaganda machinery upon the outbreak of war and they had a hard job ahead of them; a November poll of American newspaper editors revealed that, of those who expressed a preference, preferred the Allies, while only 20 supported the Germans.
It dealt mainly with printed matter, collecting and studying works from all perspectives for its own information. All types were usually by Germans and were originally written in German.
The distribution of photographs was considered especially important and a "photo centre" [sic] was established, becoming the Filmed Photo Office" in to consolidate and coordinate visual propaganda. Photographs were emphasized because they did not need translation and could touch the emotions of the viewer.
Much German propaganda showed the war from the German perspective although eliminating any negative aspects [See Appendix 1].
The following description of fighting in the Argonne is typical of items in the War Chronicle: They could not resist our attacks so that our troops were able to proceed slowly but continuously. However, German propaganda was hamstrung by an inability among the leaders to understand propaganda techniques.
Indeed, the German Ambassador to Washington, and a leading German propagandist in his own right, Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, recognized that German propaganda in America suffered from a misunderstanding of the American character: The American wants to come to his own judgment and, therefore, wants facts only.
It spent much energy defending Germany against Entente charges of crimes against persons, both civilian and military, and cultural monuments. The German military leadership gave the propagandists much to defend; the latter had to deal with the invasion of Belgium and unrestricted submarine warfare, especially defending the sinking of the Lusitania.
German Propagandists As noted above, the German Ambassador to Washington, Count von Bernstorfflater to become a Reichstag member and then anti-Nazi exile, was one of the main German propagandists in America. Among his colleagues were the German-American journalist George S.
Fuehr; the ill-fated Dr. Dernburg received much ink in The New York Times from the beginning of the war until he was hounded out of America in late June, He also hired former Wilson advisor William Bayard Hale a leading American journalist as a public relations man.
The Germans also utilized the peace movements to keep America out of the war as an Ally. A major theme was the appeal to the American spirit of "fair play. The Germans also reached out to American minorities, notably the Negroes and the Jews.
The German propaganda reached America via Italy until the latter entered the war, after which it flowed through Holland and Scandinavia.
Once it reached American shores, a variety of groups distributed it. Byit had over 2, members in branches in over 40 states.
It was especially important in St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee and Cincinnati and was "the largest ethnic organization of its kind in American history.
Count von Bernstorff noted the utility of libraries, especially the Library of Congress, in spreading the message around.
Despite these arrangements, the Germans, as did the British, preferred to reach out to influential individuals. The German embassy had a list of 60, people, mostly through the manifests of the Hamburg-Amerika Linie a passenger shipping company and the efforts of the German Werkbund, ostensibly dedicated to arts, crafts, and German daily life but who also gathered names of foreign neutrals who could distribute pamphlets to the citizenry and press of their countries.
Politicians, clubs, and colleges were also included. The damage actually started well before the war when the American public believed a story that a German squadron had molested the American fleet after the battle of Manila Bay and when President Theodore Roosevelt invoked the Monroe Doctrine against German military threats to recover debts from Venezuela.
The sinking of the S. Lusitania on May 7, which the Germans blamed on the British putting American passengers on an armed munitions ship and the execution later that same year of Edith Cavell, the British nurse who confessed to helping Entente prisoners escape in Belgium gave Germany black eyes and created much work for German apologists.
A few months later, on July 24, Dr. Albert made the mistake of falling asleep on the El in New York.Nov 29, · The manager had denied service to a group of young men, but an alleged victim's dine-and-dash tweets emerged.
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It contains news and views often (trigger alert!) highly . 1. Introduction. An analysis of British and German propaganda aimed at Americans during World War One reveals four main trends: blaming the other for the war, claims that America’s interests were antithetical to those of the enemy, exposure of the enemy’s atrocities, and claims of cultural or racial solidarity with America.
The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States of America, and Comments on American History.
Taking everything together then, I declare that our city is the School [or "Education"] of Greece [, tês Helládos Paídeusis], and I declare that in my opinion each single one of our citizens, in all the manifold aspects of life, is able to .
United States History I. Introduction United States History, story of how the republic developed from colonial beginnings in the 16th century, when the first European explorers arrived, until modern times.
[*]B.A., J.D., University of Arizona. Staff attorney, Office of the Solicitor, United States Department of the Interior. The Article is an expansion of a report submitted by the author at the invitation of the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Senate Judiciary Committee, and reproduced in the Committee's report, The Right to Keep and Bear Arms.
A book by the author, Origins of the Second.